Cloning, purification and characterization of nigrelysin, a novel actinoporin from the sea anemone Anthopleura nigrescens artículo Académico uri icon


  • Actinoporins constitute a unique class of pore-forming toxins found in sea anemones that being secreted as soluble monomers are able to bind and permeabilize membranes leading to cell death. The interest in these proteins has risen due to their high cytotoxicity that can be properly used to design immunotoxins against tumor cells and antigen-releasing systems to cell cytosol. In this work we describe a novel actinoporin produced by Anthopleura nigrescens, an anemone found in the Central American Pacific Ocean. Here we report the amino acid sequence of an actinoporin as deduced from cDNA obtained from total body RNA. The synthetic DNA sequence encoding for one cytolysin variant was expressed in BL21 Star (DE3) Escherichia coli and the protein purified by chromatography on CM Sephadex C-25 with more than 97% homogeneity as verified by MS-MS and HPLC analyses. This actinoporin comprises 179 amino acid residues, consistent with its observed isotope-averaged molecular mass of 19 661 Da. The toxin lacks Cys and readily permeabilizes erythrocytes, as well as L1210 cells. CD spectroscopy revealed that its secondary structure is dominated by beta structure (58.5%) with 5.5% of α-helix, and 35% of random structure. Moreover, binding experiments to lipidic monolayers and to liposomes, as well as permeabilization studies in vesicles, revealed that the affinity of this toxin for sphingomyelin-containing membranes is quite similar to sticholysin II (StII). Comparison by spectroscopic techniques and modeling the three-dimensional structure of nigrelysin (Ng) showed a high homology with StII but several differences were also detectable. Taken together, these results reinforce the notion that Ng is a novel member of the actinoporin pore-forming toxin (PFT) family with a HA as high as that of StII, the most potent actinoporin so far described, but with peculiar structural characteristics contributing to expand the understanding of the structure-function relationship in this protein family. © 2018

fecha de publicación

  • 2018